Left-libertarianism (or left-wing libertarianism) names several related but distinct approaches to political and social theory, which stresses both individual freedom and social equality.In its oldest usage, left-libertarianism is a synonym for anti-authoritarian varieties of left-wing politics, either anarchism in general or social anarchism in particular.This left-wing market anarchism, which includes Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's mutualism and Samuel Edward Konkin III's agorism, appeals to left-wing concerns such as egalitarianism, gender and sexuality, class, immigration, and environmentalism.
and maintains that natural resources (land, oil, gold, vegetation) should be held in an egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively.
Those left-libertarians who support private property do so under the condition that recompense is offered to the local community.
The term left-libertarian has been used to refer to a variety of different political-economic philosophies, emphasizing individual liberty. According to Gaus, The term "left-libertanism" has at least three meanings.
In its oldest sense, it is a synonym either for anarchism in general or social anarchism in particular.
George was among the staunchest defenders of free markets, and his book Protection or Free Trade was read into the U. George advocated the elimination of intellectual property arrangements, regarding them as an especially damaging form of protectionism, and instead favored government-sponsored prizes for inventors.
Early followers of George's philosophy called themselves "Single Taxers" because they believed the only economically and morally legitimate, broad-based tax is on land rent. Cohen extensively criticized the claim, characteristic of the Georgist school of political economy, that self-ownership and a privilege-free society can be realized simultaneously.
The term Georgism was coined later, though some modern proponents prefer the less eponymous term geoism instead, are used by some Georgists to represent a difference of emphasis or divergent ideas about how the land value tax revenue should be spent or redistributed to residents, but all agree that economic rent must be recovered from private landholders. In Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality, Cohen argued that any system purporting to take equality and its enforcement seriously is not consistent with the full emphasis on self-ownership and negative freedom that defines market libertarian thought.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies characterized by self-governed, non-hierarchical, voluntary institutions.
Later it became a term for the left or Konkinite wing of the free-market libertarian movement, and has since come to cover a range of pro-market but anti-capitalist positions, mostly individualist anarchist, including agorism and mutualism, often with an implication of sympathies (such as for radical feminism or the labor movement) not usually shared by anarcho-capitalists.
In a third sense it has recently come to be applied to a position combining individual self-ownership with an egalitarian approach to natural resources; most proponents of this position are not anarchists.
Contemporary left-libertarian scholars such as Hillel Steiner, Peter Vallentyne, Philippe Van Parijs, Michael Otsuka, and David Ellerman root an economic egalitarianism in the classical liberal concepts of self-ownership and appropriation.