This form was defined two decades before the Mongolian name got its current Cyrillic script spelling and 'Ulaanbaatar' transliteration (1941–1950).
Located on the banks of the Tuul River, Ulaanbaatar has been well within the sphere of Turco-Mongol nomadic empires throughout history.
Wang Khan Toghrul of the Keraites, a Nestorian Christian monarch who Marco Polo identified as the legendary Prester John, is said to have had his palace here (the Black Forest of the Tuul River) and forbade hunting in the holy mountain Bogd Uul.
The palace is said to be where Genghis Khan stayed with Yesui Khatun before attacking the Tangut in 1226.
Founded in 1639 as a yurt monastery, Ulaanbaatar, originally Örgöö (palace-yurt), was first located at Lake Shireet Tsagaan nuur (75 km directly east of the imperial capital Karakorum) in what is now Burd sum, Övörkhangai, around 230 kilometres (143 miles) south-west from the present site of Ulaanbaatar, and was intended by the Mongol nobles to be the seat of the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu, Zanabazar.
Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about 1,310 metres (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River.
It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system.
The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre.
In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers.
Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially.